Other authors, such as Hans Sachs of Nuremberg, favored German for his more local audiences. Price nicely contrasts two Crucifixions from the Small Passion series of and from a broadsheet entitled Seven Hours of Prayer of The former is printed with thirty-seven Latin poems by Benedictus Chelidonius, a Benedictine monk and teacher at St. Egidien's in Nuremberg, which present "a pompous display of virtuosity in no fewer than twenty different classical meters" p. By contrast, the visual and emotional complexities of the Small Passion's Crucifixion in some ways match the complexities of Chelidonius's poems.
It is also one of thirty-seven woodcuts in this rich narrative cycle rather than a single, stand alone image. Price offers an excellent analysis of several of these poems, which are filled with aphorisms eg. The Seven Hours of Prayer , mentioned above, stresses both the drama of the passion and the grieving of the Virgin Mary, features consistent with contemporary religious piety in Germany. The connections between texts and images are too often overlooked. Chelidonius composed distinctively different types of Latin poems for each.
The Large Passion , a large folio format woodcuts c. The Life of the Virgin , a modest-sized folio tome woodcuts c.
Erasmus - Wikiwand
The Small Passion , a small quarto woodcuts c. As Price notes p.
In the case of the latter two books, the poems are printed on the verso and face their corresponding woodcuts on the recto of each page. This layout encourages the reader to link word and image. Artist and author had religious goals in mind. For example, the artist imbues The Large Passion with the "gravitas of classical heroism" p. Price describes the triumphant Christ after the Resurrection as an Apollonian "sun god. Missing from this discussion, however, is a consideration of the collaborative relationship of artist and poet.
Which came first--the woodcut or the poem? One successful project led to a second and then a third joining of their respective talents. During his lifetime, many Christians still blamed the Jews and their modern descendants for Christ's death. Nuremberg expelled its last Jews in The Latin Church Father was the patron saint and role model for many humanists, including Erasmus and, more locally, Hartmann Schedel, author of the Nuremberg Chronicle.
Portrait of Desiderius Erasmus
Unfortunately, this comment reveals the author's unfamiliarity with the long tradition of depicting the scholar-saint in Northern European art. A relevant essay, not cited by Price, is Peter G.
The men may have met when Luther visited the Sodalitas Staupitziana in Nuremberg in October , a point that Price had brought up early but neglects to mention again in this chapter. Price recounts Luther's growing influence on the artist, who owned at least sixteen published tracts by the Wittenberg theologian.
Since other scholars have explored this subject at great length, I found it rather difficult to distinguish Price's additions to this dialogue, though his comments are most appropriate for the book's broader goals. Price is especially comfortable in Chapter 9 "The Reformation and the Bible" since many of his own recent publications address biblical humanism and the rapid rise of new Latin and vernacular editions of the Bible. Price challenges the traditional interpretation of the Last Supper as espousing communion in both forms, bread and wine, since he finds no clear Eucharistic allusions.
Can the chalice instead refer to John where Jesus dips the bread, given to the now absent Judas, in the wine? Price proposes that the woodcut shows an episode after Judas's departure in which Christ says, "I give you a new commandment, that you love one another as I have loved you.
By this everyone will recognize that you are my disciples insofar as you have love for one another" John Price stresses Luther's emphasis on Christian love, including the insertion of this passage in the preface of his Septembertestament published in September This suggestion is attractive though it is just as easy for another viewer to read the apostles' reactions as ones of shock and depression--not joy.
The rest of the chapter relates the Four Apostles to Lutheran ideas. Price stresses the inclusion of biblical passages in German from the Septembertestament ; the selection and relative position of the four figures John, Peter, Mark, and Paul ; and the artist's warning to the council, which had embraced Lutheranism a year earlier, to be vigilant against false teachers.
Erasmus of Rotterdam By Hans Holbein. Considered to be one of the greatest portrait paintings of the 16th century. For an interpretation of other famous examples of German portraiture, see: Famous Paintings Analyzed Hans Holbein ranks alongside Matthias Grunewald , Albrecht Durer and Lucas Cranach the Elder , as one of the top Northern Renaissance artists of the early 16th century.
Although born in Augsburg, Holbein was active mainly in Basel until his mids. A prolific and versatile contributor to all forms of Northern Renaissance art - he produced propagandist forms of Protestant Reformation Art Lutheranism had arrived in Basel , civic mural paintings , book design and illustration - he became best known for his portraiture, both in Basel and especially in England. His range included large religious paintings , such as The Solothurn Madonna , Kunstmuseum Solothurn and The Passion altarpiece , Kunstmuseum Basel , as well as miniature painting - see, for instance, his miniature portrait of Anne of Cleves , Watercolour and gum on vellum in ivory case, Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
Although his early painting was influenced by German Gothic Art , which he absorbed from his father, Hans Holbein the Elder , and from the work of Matthias Grunewald - see for example The Body of the Dead Christ in the Tomb , Kunstmuseum Basel - his maturing style was enhanced by artistic developments in the Italian Renaissance , notably the work of Andrea Mantegna and Leonardo da Vinci - see, for instance, his use of sfumato in Venus and Amor , Kunstmuseum Basel.
His main contacts during his early period in Basel came from within the city's Humanist circles.
In , for instance, he was commissioned to produce several pen and ink drawings for The Praise of Folly by the humanist philosopher and scholar Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam , whose portrait he painted and who later provided him with an introduction to his friend Sir Thomas More, in England. It was here that Holbein achieved his greatest artistic success, establishing himself as one of the best portrait artists of the century.
The subject of this iconic portrait - Desiderius Erasmus - was the most eminent scholar and humanist philosopher of the Northern Renaissance. In addition to his scholastic research and publications, Erasmus was a persistent critic of the ecclesiastical abuses committed by the Church of Rome, and encouraged the demand for reform, which culminated in Luther's Protestant Reformation and in the Catholic Counter-Reformation.
Urging an equal restraint on the zealots of Lutheranism, Erasmus's even-handed stance provoked the wrath of extremists on both sides of the debate. In , he moved to Basel, the city in which Holbein was active at the time. Since Erasmus corresponded with other learned men thoughout Europe, he regularly commissioned drawings of himself to send to friends and supporters.
In this case, Erasmus commissioned the portrait as a gift to William Warham , the last pre-Reformation archbishop of Canterbury.