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In Egypt, Joseph took 40 days to embalm the body of his father, and left Egypt, Moses was on Mount Sinai for 40 days and 40 nights, and when the tabernacle was built it took 40 silver bases to stand on. The explorers of the land of Canaan arriving to the Promised Land: it took them 40 days, but in return they had 40 years of punishment. Judge Abdon had 40 children, and the philistine persevered for 40 days, according to Samuel 1 Sam. Even the great prophet Elijah remained on Mount Horeb for 40 days and 40 nights and Jonah preached repentance to the inhabitants of Nineveh for 40 days.
Therefore really lent 40 days 40 nights of true inner penance, fasting, is not just a physical stance but spiritual experience. Posted on February 22, Updated on February 24, In questa celebrazione, dedicata a Fauno Lupercus, due ragazzi di famiglia patrizia venivano condotti in una grotta sul Palatino, consacrata al Dio, al cui interno i sacerdoti, dopo aver sacrificato delle capre, segnavano loro la fronte con il coltello tinto del sangue degli animali.
Il sangue veniva poi asciugato con della lana bianca bagnata nel latte, e subito i due giovani dovevano sorridere. Il carattere mariano della festa fu introdotto da papa Sergio. La Vergine si ferma, presentando il Figlio, generato prima della stella del mattino. Questi riti riproponevano comunque una tradizione antica che celebrava la festa del ritorno della luce e della bella stagione, con la sconfitta delle forze del buio e del freddo.
In entrambe le raffigurazioni rappresenterebbe comunque il binomio natura — uomo. Che dire poi dei ricordi di san Paolo, quando, scrivendo ai cristiani di Corinto, racconta loro di avere ricevuto 40 frustate dai giudei. Quaresima dunque davvero 40 giorni e 40 notti di vera interiore penitenza, un digiuno non semplicemente corporale ma soprattutto spirituale. Posted on February 5, Updated on February 5, Per la prima volta alla sfilata dei Carri del Carnevale di Viareggio un carro allegorico dedicato ai Templari:. For the first time the parade of floats of the Carnival celebrations in Viareggio had a wagon dedicated to the allegorical Templars:.
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What may be more disconcerting and disheartening for human dignity that fight in the name of war for the good of people? That is the short but strong message that the two wagons try to bring to the public.
Our Carnival becomes a stage on which two warriors face each other in the line of sight, not motivated by feelings of hatred and violence, but moved by the strength of love, justice and brotherhood, which are the necessary foundations for the construction of UNIVERSAL PEACE in order to safeguard future generations. The Templars are known more for the big battles that ended with the fall of St. John of Acre, few want to remember that as the Poor Knights of Christ, they worked mainly through political mediation whenever possible and avoided unnecessary bloodshed, looking for battle only as a last resort.
We recall how the various allegations in the trial for heresy were accused of intelligence with the enemy. Posted on December 18, Updated on December 18, Posted on November 9, Updated on November 10, In a book released Friday in Italy, Pala explains how he interpreted elements of the painting that have symbolic value in Christian theology as musical clues. Pala first saw that by drawing the five lines of a musical staff across the painting, the loaves of bread on the table as well as the hands of Jesus and the Apostles could each represent a musical note.
This fit the relation in Christian symbolism between the bread, representing the body of Christ, with the hands, which are used to bless the food, he said. Vezzosi said that previous research has indicated that the hands of the Apostles in the painting can be substituted with the notes of a Gregorian chant, though so far no one had tried to work in the bread loaves. Where only half the name of a double region appears, it is not an omission. Beneath the regional level come the provinces, each bearing the name of its capital city. Municipalities are subdivided into any number of villages, towns, frazioni fractions , and borghi hamlets.
Unless it is obvious that the urban area is meant, all names of cities should be taken to include their surrounding area, possibly as far as the provincial boundaries. The names of regions are given in English where English equivalents exist, otherwise in Italian, but not Latin.
Only the names of the largest cities, whose English names are household words, are translated. For the adjective form of all place names, I have preferred to use English. Each entry, corresponding to a pasta shape, is divided as follows. If it sometimes seems vague or ambiguous, it is because people used what they could lay hands on. It is not necessarily intended as a recipe. No list can be exhaustive. Modern chefs are devising all kinds of new ways to serve traditional pastas, but that is for another book. Comprehensiveness is not possible.
Lovers of parallel lists—all provinces, all cities—will have to loosen up here. The list of sightings of a given pasta may well consist of a region, the outskirts of a city in a different region, and a valley somewhere. Oretta and I consider ourselves very fortunate indeed that our book is being published by University of California Press and thank Darra Goldstein, Sheila Levine, and Dore Brown for their wise and good-humored counsel throughout the months of translation and editing.
Oretta doubted that a single copyeditor could combine the culinary expertise and cultural breadth needed for the task, while I feared that no one could possibly have the strength, patience, and restraint I knew the job required. But there was no need to worry.
We are obliged to the press for assigning just maureen b. Oretta Zanini De Vita has been my friend here in Rome for more than twenty years, and much of what I know about Italian food and its history has come from listening to Oretta talk and from translating her work. She is the classic walking encyclopedia of Italian social history and so much more, and gives her pearls for the asking. And speaking of walking encyclopedias, my friend Leofranc Holford-Strevens, in Oxford, has replied within minutes to all my most desperate e-mail queries on everything from Albanian diacritical marks to Greek citations.
Thanks, too, as always, to the irreplaceable Howard Isaacs, my partner for the Dictionary of Italian Cuisine. I could never have translated this book without that earlier work, and I blessed him every time I found exactly the term I sought over these last months. This page left intentionally blank voyage in the pasta universe The Reasons for This Research [oretta zanini de vita] Pasta may be the unchallenged symbol of Italian food, yet no in-depth research has ever been done on its many shapes. Recent cookery texts are stuck mainly on the nobler stuffed pastas, with little attention to their form, and recipes nowadays almost always call for factory-made pasta.
One small exception is Luigi Sada and his Spaghetti e compagni,1 where he talks about the shapes of homemade pasta in Puglia, his home region. There were others, especially in the s, who tried to impose some order on the world of pasta shapes, but they eventually threw in the towel.
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The scholars who have studied food over time have largely relied on early printed texts. I chose a different way. First, I sought oral sources for what remains alive in memory of the pasta-making tradition, and then corresponding evidence in printed texts. It has been a long and exhausting journey. I traveled to small towns and talked with samplings of very old people, trying to jog their memories about the pasta-making traditions and rituals of the past. Even though much has changed, a great deal remains. Important in this regard is the work of associations and other organizations laboring on the spot, many established ad hoc, such as the Accademia del Pizzocchero di Teglio, dedicated to preserving the pizzocchero of the Valtellina.
My interviews with these older people also made me more aware of how rapidly the agrarian landscape had been transformed and how the grain varieties 1 2 voyage in the pasta univ erse once essential to the making of pasta and other foods had disappeared with the entry onto the market of superior varieties from other countries. Greater prosperity and better living conditions in some areas can be inferred from the ingredients used in the local pasta. For example, in Tuscany, frascarelli contained eggs; in Piedmont, the old farm wealth was visible in the typical eggrich tajarin, sometimes even made only with yolks.
A true pastario—a catalog of pastas—that is, one that includes homemade pastas and that covers all of Italy, has never been attempted.
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The classic printed texts, from the s on, include clusters of pasta terminology here and there. For certain pastas, we know the name but not the shape. Some books shed light on the presence of pastas in a well-delimited territory. Whatever the format of these pastas, the scalco knew exactly where they came from. Tortelli appear both large and small, down to tortelletti piccolissimi.
The weather contributed, too, with tempestine little storms and grandinine little hailstones , and the lame in the village became pastas called gobbini and stortini. Saints and demons populate the Italian pasta universe, too, linked to sagas, legends, beliefs, and superstitions.
Libya inspired tripolini from Tripoli , which entered the market in , and bengasini from Benghazi.